New Perfume Review Juliette Has a Gun Vanilla Vibes- Vanilla on the Dunes

I have been fortunate to spend my share of summer days at the beach towns of Cape Cod or the far end of Long Island. One of my favorite parts of the day was sunrise. I would walk out during false dawn with a cup of coffee and sit on the dunes to watch the sun appear. This was also the time when a freshening breeze from off the water would meet me in the dune grass. There was a sweet smell to the beginning of a new day. I was reminded of these mornings with Juliette Has a Gun Vanilla Vibes.

Romano Ricci

Romano Ricci is another of the early niche perfume success stories. Since 2006 he has produced an eclectic collection which contains some of my favorites of the last few years. Vanilla Vibes is his first attempt to make a gourmand style perfume. That he also chose to give it an aquatic twist is typical of the kind of aesthetic which has defined his brand over the years.

Vanilla Vibes opens with that salty breeze from an ingredient he calls “fleur de sel”. Fleur de sel is the salt which is harvested from evaporating seawater. As a perfume ingredient it seems like a delicate accord of ozonic and sea spray ingredients. This is kept very transparent. The vanilla comes forward which the salt accord swirls around softening the sweetness quotient. M. Ricci also provides a hint of tropical breezes with orchid acting as a supporting note. That airiness is enhanced with a suite of musks while tonka bean further keeps the vanilla from becoming overwhelming. Sandalwood provides the woody base for it all to rest upon.

Vanilla Vibes has 10-12 hour longevity and average sillage.

As a vanilla fragrance this could have become a sticky out of control mess. To M. Ricci’s credit he keeps the entire composition at a comfortable opacity. Spraying on Vanilla Vibes is another way to start my day with a smile dreaming of vanilla on the dunes.

Disclosure: this review is based on a sample provided by Sephora.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Bentley Beyond Wild Vetiver- Full-Spectrum Vetiver

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When I’m deciding what perfume to wear in the summer my eyes always pause on my collection of favorite vetivers. Warm weather and vetiver go together like peas and carrots. (Sorry Forrest Gump) Vetiver is also one of the most versatile ingredients in all of perfumery having a multi-faceted profile. Over recent years perfumers have been using various fractions of vetiver to enhance certain parts of that profile. They have been part of some excellent perfume. Except my summertime shelf of vetiver is only populated by those fragrances which want to give me a full-spectrum vetiver at their heart. I have recently found a new perfume which achieves this; Bentley Beyond Wild Vetiver.

Marc Roesti

The perfumes inspired by the iconic luxury car Bentley are one of those unsung collections which has produced above average fragrances. Many of the car brands which have perfume affiliated with them are through the bigger beauty corporations. For Bentley that means Lalique is responsible for the collection which began in 2012. I think the second fragrance released under the Bentley label; Bentley for Men Intense is one of the best designer fragrances of the last ten years. There has been a noticeable aesthetic which has formed over the last seven years which is probably due to Lalique creative director Marc Roesti. He has overseen perfumes which capture a sophistication befitting the brand.

Sidonie Lancesseur

Mr. Roesti’s latest addition is a series of three perfumes called the Bentley Beyond collection; Exotic Musk, Majestic Cashmere, and Wild Vetiver. This is a different direction than what has come before. The previous Bentley releases have been complex masculine-style perfume. The Beyond collection is still focused on a masculine aesthetic but with stripped down construction focused on the note listed in the name. I like all three, but Wild Vetiver is the one which connected with me. Mr. Roesti asked perfumer Sidonie Lancesseur to take vetiver and display all the kaleidoscopic hues of this versatile ingredient.

She uses an Indonesian version of vetiver as the core. In the early moments she uses pepper to tease out the grapefruit quality of vetiver. It adds a roughness which becomes a recurring theme throughout Wild Vetiver. Verbena comes next and the citrus-tinted green of that ingredient connects the grapefruit along with the sharp green aspects of the vetiver. This is a gorgeous refreshing vetiver at this point. What takes it up a level is when Mme Lancesseur takes the dry woodiness of amberwood and roughs it up with birch. It is where the wild in the name is found. The birch makes the amberwood less monolithic which then allows the woody earthiness of the vetiver a place to find purchase.

Wild Vetiver has 10-12 hour longevity and average sillage.

If you like vetiver and are looking for something different Wild Vetiver is that kind of fragrance. It might take some doing to find where Bentley perfumes are carried. If you want a full-spectrum vetiver for summer Wild Vetiver will be worth the search.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample provided by Bentley.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Zaharoff Signature pour Homme- Behind the Curve, Again

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I think those who read this blog regularly know how much I enjoy finding new perfumes. It is one of the things which keeps me going that sense of search. Even though I try I just keep ending up behind the curve of certain brands. There is one brand I keep finding out about because someone else is wearing or talking about it.

George Zaharoff

In 2006 I was told about Zaharoff pour Homme by a friend who told me it was the only perfume he owned. At the time I had never heard of it. Once I tried it, I wondered why I hadn’t heard of it. George Zaharoff was a men’s fashion designer who made classic men’s clothing. I knew of him because of my time in New York City. I had no idea he had made a men’s fragrance in 1999 called Zaharoff pour Homme. When my friend introduced me to it, I was impressed at the niche-quality construction in a mainstream release. Perfumer Claude Dir made a fantastic men’s Oriental which has remained one of my favorites since obtaining a bottle in 2011 when it re-launched. Zaharoff pour Homme is one of the most successful fusions of niche sensibility inside a mainstream framework.

Claude Dir

Now in 2019 I was going through a couple of my favorite vloggers on perfume and what do I see there is a new release; Zaharoff Signature pour Homme. It took me a couple of months to finally track down a sample. When I did, I had a bit of déjà vu as the same creative team of Mr. Zaharoff and M. Dir have again taken current niche trends and fused them into a mainstream style fragrance.

What is also quite nice about Zaharoff Signature pour Homme is it is a clear follow-up to Zaharoff pour Homme sharing a central axis of lavender, allspice and ginger, along with oud and sandalwood. Where it is very different is M. Dir adds in some newer trends to that foundation.

Lavender is used as the focal point of the top accord but this time M. Dir spears it with twin spicy prongs of black pepper and cardamom. These add a freshness to the lavender by teasing out the herbal quality. The transition to the heart comes via a precisely balanced iris it matches the lavender in intensity as the ginger and allspice make their return. The base accord become a paean to woods with some resinous depth thrown in. Sandalwood, oud accord, cedar, and balsam provide that sturdy masculine woody base loved by many.

Zaharoff Signature pour Homme has 12-14 hour longevity an average sillage.

Like Zaharoff pour Homme, Zaharoff Signature pour Homme is the kind of perfume for the man who only has a couple of bottles of perfume on his dresser. What sets it apart is Mr. Zaharoff and M. Dir know how to make that style of perfume smell just like it could be your signature scent, as well. I have enjoyed this new Zaharoff Signature pour Homme even though I am hopelessly behind the curve, again.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample provided by Nordstrom.

Mark Behnke

My Favorite Things: Ambrette

The sources of most musks in perfumery are derived from animal sources. Those musks have a presence to them which sets them apart. There is a source of musk in fragrance which does not come from animals. It comes from the seeds of the ambrette plant. Particularly over the past few years it has become one of the more interesting musks to use. One reason is it can be used as part of a top accord. It can substitute for the heavier musks when a lighter touch is needed in a base accord. It also is the musk I most enjoy wearing in warm weather because it is lighter. Here are five of my favorites.

The perfume which probably put ambrette on the map is 2007’s Chanel No. 18. A mixture of ambrette and iris this is one of the most lilting Chanel perfumes. One of the interesting aspects of ambrite is it has tinges of green and fruit to its scent profile. Perfumers Christopher Sheldrake and Jacques Polge take advantage of all the nuance available from the ambrette as they wrap it around a luxurious iris. Most perfume lovers had never heard of ambrette prior to this. After this I never forgot about it.

The reference standard musk perfume is 2009’s Serge Lutens Muscs Koublai Khan. Most people remember it for the combination of rose and the animalic musks. What few people realize is perfumer Christopher Sheldrake uses a high concentration of ambrette as the interstitial tissue between the rose and animalic musks. The ambrette is what makes this the king of musk perfumes.

One of perfumer Christine Nagel’s last perfume for Jo Malone was 2014’s Wood Sage & Sea Salt. Working with creative director Celine Roux they wanted to make a different aquatic. Mme Nagel uses ambrette in the top accord in place of the typical ozonic notes of most aquatics. It is the ambrette that brings the fresh to push back against the briny mineralic accord. This is a great example of how flexible ambrette is in the hands of perfumers.

In 2017’s Parfum D’Empire Le Cre de la Lumiere perfumer Marc-Antoine Corticchiato uses ambrette as the sole ingredient in the top. He takes advantage of that by teasing out the threads of subtlety he wants to use. Most importantly a powdery aspect which entwines around a similarly styled iris. This forms the most beautiful opaque globe of light musk and iris which get a rose tint before it is done. A gorgeous fragile piece of perfume.

In 2017’s Frassai Verano Porteno creative director Natalia Outeda asked perfumer Rodrigo Flores-Roux for a perfume of summer nights in Buenos Aires. The opening is a beautifully realized air of night flowers on the breeze. In the base he uses ambrette to form a lighter musk accord by combining it cleverly with mate tea. It is just the right partner to add some edge to the ambrette without it taking over.

Disclosure: This review is based on bottles I purchased of each perfume.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Bastide Verveine du Sud- Twilight in Provence

I’ve noticed a pleasing trend over the last year or two. For so long there were new brands who wanted to test the limits of how luxury-minded they could be. Often with a matching price tag. There were times where it seemed there was an arms race to see who could put the most opulent perfume in an equally extravagant bottle. There were brands who held that perspective honestly. Those are the brands which are still around because there was heart over cynicism. I have no problem with that kind of perfume. My only concern is it puts up a barrier to being able to experience some of the best perfume. The trend which I am enjoying is the opposite of this.

Frederic and Shirin Fekkai

It seems like since 2017 there have been several brands which have begun not by trying to find the high-end of the market. Instead they are trying to find the balance between creativity and budget at the more affordable end.  They offer their perfumes in smaller rollerball sizes to allow for more sampling of the line. The packaging is also kept simple; you’ll find that budget inside the bottle. The final ingredient it to work with perfumers who are known for some of the best-known niche perfumes while giving them leeway to create.

Mathieu Nardin

An example of this kind of perfumery comes from husband-and-wife Shirin and Frederic Fekkai and their brand Bastide. Started in 2017 they wanted to capture the scents of Aix-en-Provence as perfumes. I discovered them a little over a year ago and have enjoyed the perfumes they have produced. The fifth perfume, Bastide Verveine du Sud, continues what has worked so far.

Perfumer Mathieu Nardin has been behind all the Bastide releases. In the first three releases I thought I detected a kind of sunny aesthetic forming. Last year’s Figure Amour was more grounded confounding my earlier thoughts. Verveine du Sud is also working in a similar direction.

The brief is to capture the scent of midsummer’s twilight in Provence. Once the sun has set in summertime there is coolness to the air which allows for the flowers and fruit to peek out from behind the heat and humidity. That is what appears in Verveine du Sud.

A really refreshing combination of grapefruit, lemon, and mint form the top accord. The mint is used to evoke that chill in the air just after the sun has disappeared for the night. It lifts the citrus with a coolness. Verbena matches its lemon-tinted green with the citrus while peony picks up on the mint adding in a cool and fresh floral. A swirl of white musks add an expansive quality to everything. The base rests on a warm mixture of amber and light woods as a metaphorical fire pit to warm your hands.

Verveine du Sud has 10-12 hour longevity and average sillage.

Bastide has now become another of these new brands looking to make perfume for a wider audience. Verveine du Sud shows there is still more to come from M. and Mme Fekkai as they translate Provence into perfume.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample provided by Bastide.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Berdoues Azur Riviera- Chemist’s Aquatic

As I go through my time learning about perfume materials there are little factoids, I file away  to use in a future review. Some of them are so interesting to me, as a chemist, that I want to find a perfume so that I can trot it out. One I learned about last summer had to do with seaweed absolute. As aquatic perfumes have evolved, I have been happy to see newer versions more willing to go against the “fresh and clean” quality which launched the genre towards something more realistic. One of the ways is to use seaweed absolute to provide a more realistic scent of the shore at low tide. The predominant scent it provides to perfume is a vegetal briny effect. By itself it provides that powerfully. What was really amazing was a trick the chemist I was with showed me. When you take a drop of the absolute and spread it out on a strip you can detect a hint of jasmine in-between the iodine and the vegetation. It turns out that in this specific variety of seaweed they have found through chemical analysis a small percentage of methyl jasmonate. The scientist’s mind was afire with how nature would do this. I also knew I was going to write about it as soon as I found a perfume which used seaweed absolute. That time has come with Berdoues Azur Riviera.

Jean-Marie Santantoni

Azur Riviera is part of the Grand Cru collection within Berdoues. I have found this collection to be above average versions of well-known styles of perfumes. They tend to be simply constructed good fragrance. Sometime that is all anyone needs. As the name portends it is meant to capture the scent of the French Riviera. In that sense it is a typical Mediterranean type of fragrance with sea spray and ozonic notes over florals. The difference is the use of seaweed absolute as the base note. Perfumer Jean-Marie Sanantoni uses it to provide a slightly different twist on this style of fragrance.

The first two-thirds of Azur Riviera is familiar territory. The top accord is that beachside accord of ocean and wind. The florals chosen are a lively orange blossom and an expansive jasmine. Then M. Santantoni brings in the seaweed absolute. This provides a more grounded brininess than the top accord version. This is seaweed that has freshly been washed up glistening with the ocean water on it. It adds a bit of nature to the fantasy beach milieu. What I enjoy, and I admit this might be my overactive imagination, is how the jasmine seems to find a place within the iodine and brine.

Azur Riviera has 8-10 hour longevity and average sillage.

Like all the other Grand Cru releases this is another above average version of the style of perfume they are making. What attracted me to it was my chemist’s curiosity at the jasmine within the seaweed.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample provided by Sephora.

Mark Behnke

The Sunday Magazine: The Final Season of HBO’s Game of Thrones

The final episode of HBO’s “Game of Thrones” aired a week ago. Like all final episodes of beloved series its reception was mixed. That is to be expected. Characters you’ve spent the last eight years with you hope they get happy, or heroic, endings. If those characters don’t, you’re probably in the unhappy camp. If they did, you’re in the pleased camp. We had been warned by the author of the books the series this is based on, George R.R. Martin, that the ending would be bittersweet. Knowing that going into last week’s episode I wasn’t surprised that it lived up to that foreshadowing. I’ve enjoyed it more the more times I watch it. There are many full circle moments and callbacks to the past. I thought this final season was well done with enormous set pieces like nothing we’ve ever seen on television. There were twists and tension which glued me to the screen the past six Sunday nights. From here on I will talk about some of the key moments from the season so if you haven’t watched now is the time to stop reading.

This final season was split into two three-episode arcs. The first three episodes focused on the battle between the living and the White Walkers. My favorite episode of the season was the second one as we spent the night before battle with many of the characters interacting as they expected the next day would be their death. In a season which moved at speed this was the episode which slowed things down for us to have final lengthy moments with many of the characters we’ve spent so much time with. When the episode ends with the arrival of the White Walkers outside the walls of Winterfell so did the interlude.

That third episode which depicts the Battle of Winterfell is another amazing piece of filmmaking from this crew. It took 55 days of night shoots to put together the episode. Director Miguel Sapochnik made a battle of three distinct phases each growing more desperate. Until a final last gasp victory is achieved.

This leads to the final three episodes which focus on the battle for the Throne between the survivors and Cersei Lannister’s forces. It was the second episode of this group which also was my favorite. The two forces of nature which were Cersei and Daenerys come to a place where the entire episode is poised on a knife-edge until one of them lets her anger lead to a horrible decision. One of the brilliant pieces of this episode, again directed by Mr. Sapochnik, was the street level view of the collateral damage of the battle. For a third of the episode the audience is kept on the ground while above them dragons spew flame. It was the one episode this season that rattled my emotions the most. It leads to an ending I’ve already given my impressions on above.

In the week since the final episode was aired there have been a couple of arguments from people who were disappointed. The first was they opened a petition for “competent writers” to re-do the final season. One thing I remind anyone who mentions they didn’t like the ending; that the producers were told by Mr. Martin what the ending was. I believe every big moment we’ve seen since Season 5 has come straight out of the books. Mr. Martin will undoubtedly lay more foundation for the plot twists, but the same ones are coming for those who read the books. I keep asking if there will be a petition to ask for a “competent writer” to re-write the final book. As a viewer you have every right to be unhappy with the ending for not living up to what you wanted. What you don’t have is the “right” to ask artists to re-make the world in your vision. What we saw is Mr. Martin’s ending.

Which leads to the one disappointment I share somewhat; that the season was too fast and particularly the last two seasons seem too streamlined. There is a good reason for this. The first four and a half seasons they were working from over 4,000 pages of written books. The last two and a half were from a list of big bullet points supplied by Mr. Martin to the producers. I remind everyone in the books Jon Snow still lies stabbed on the floor of Castle Black. In the series he is resurrected, takes back Winterfell, romances the Queen, finds out he is the nephew of the Queen, fights the White Walkers, becomes a Queenslayer, and is exiled to the Night’s Watch. None of that has been depicted in the books yet that was what the producers had to work with. It left them with a dilemma, flesh things out or stay true to what is essentially a Wikipedia synopsis of the last two books from the author. I think their choice was the right one to keep it simple and connect the bullet points. Sometime in the future we will get the blanks filled in by the books.

At the end of it all I am happy with how it ended. I am also looking forward to the books to get that background which was missing. Which is maybe is exactly the way it was supposed to end.

Mark Behnke

Dead Letter Office: Tom Ford Private Blend Lavender Palm- Too Contemporary?

Ever since its debut in 2007 the Tom Ford Private Blend collection has been one of the most successful expansions of luxury niche perfumery into the marketplace. They represent one of the defining brands of that style. They were the first perfumes I would review where I would be asked, “Are they worth it?” The answer to that is always an individual choice. What was undeniable was the collection was representing some of the best-known ingredients in high quality forms where the difference was noticeable.

Tom Ford

Tom Ford and Karyn Khoury creatively directed each perfume to provide a singular luxurious experience. That so many of them are on “best of” lists show their success. They have been so successful that there is debate to whether they should even be referred to as niche anymore. I think they still retain a niche aesthetic while having a wider distribution than most other fragrances referred to with that adjective. Over the first three years of existence they cemented their style over 21 releases. Then 2011 happened.

Karyn Khoury

This is conjecture on my part, but it seems like they had tired of hearing how “safe” they were. If you were to try the three releases from 2011 it feels like they wanted to have the word contemporary be part of the lexicon when describing Tom Ford Private Blends. Jasmin Rouge, Santal Blush, and this month’s Dead Letter Office entry Lavender Palm succeeded. What separated them from the rest of the collection was they took the keynote in their name off in very different new directions. All three have been among my favorites within the entire line. For some reason Lavender Palm was discontinued after only two years. I’ll provide my hypothesis for that later.

Yann Vasnier

Lavender Palm was released early in 2011 as an exclusive to the new Beverly Hills Tom Ford boutique followed by wider release a year later. Perfumer Yann Vasnier was asked to capture a Southern California luxury vibe. He chose to use two sources of lavender wrapped in a host of green ingredients.

The top accord uses the more common lavandin where M. Vasnier adds citrus to it. The whole opening gets twisted using lime blossom which teases out the floral nature of the lavender while complementing the citrus. This is an opening with snap. The heart coalesces around lavender absolute. Here is where things take that contemporary turn. M. Vasnier uses clary sage, aldehydes, moss, and palm leaves to form a lavender accord that is at turns salty and creamy. It seemingly transforms minute-by-minute. It remains one of the most unique lavender accords I have experienced. A soft resinous base is where this ends.

Lavender Palm has 6-8 hour longevity and average sillage.

Lavender Palm became widely available in the beginning of 2012 and was discontinued by the end of 2014. I think the reason might be this was the only one of the three 2011 releases which unabashedly altered the previous style of the collection. There aren’t many Tom Ford Private Blend releases to be found in the Dead Letter Office; Lavender Palm might have got there by being too contemporary.

Disclosure: This review is based on a bottle I purchased.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Eau d’Italie Easy To Love- Tyrrhenian Cologne

There are independent brands which are turning important milestones the last few years. It is an indication of a fragrance collection which spoke to an audience over time. One of those early trendsetters who is celebrating their 15th anniversary is Eau d’Italie. Creatively directed by husband-and-wife team of Marina Sersale and Sebastian Alvarez Murena they were inspired by the hotel they own La Sireneuse in Positano, Italy. Over the past fifteen years they have used the history of the area and the hotel as launching points for their perfumes. To celebrate an anniversary they decided to keep it light and summery in Eau d’Italie Easy To Love.

Sebastian Alvarez Murena (l.) and Marina Sersale

The first half of the Eau d’Italie perfume collection had a serious perfume quality to it. Since the release of 2012’s Un Bateau pour Capri there has been a distinct lighter playful quality. This is where Easy To Love fits right in. Working with perfumer Dora Baghriche they create a clever twist on the classic Mediterranean style cologne.

Dora Baghriche

The perfume shelves are full of takes on citrus, fig, and woods concepts to capture an afternoon in the Mediterranean. What the creative team does here is to provide a Tyrrhenian spin for the part of the Mediterranean that faces Positano and La Sireneuse. The only thing which remains is the fig. On either side is a richer fruit, a fresh floral, and a sweetened skin musk.

Mme Baghriche uses white currant as her opening fruity blast. It is exuberantly fruity, enough so that it had to be carefully measured so the green fig could contrast it with its creamy green quality. In a smart pivot she uses the freshness of peony to lift the currant and fig away from becoming too heavy. It turns it into a Tyrrhenian breeze. As delightful as this was it is the base which connected most with me. Mme Baghriche uses honey, tonka, and ambrette to form a sweet warm skin accord. So often in this style of perfume the skin musk is given a salty tint. The idea to drizzle it in honey and tonka is very pleasurable. It also gives this enough weight to be worn on a summer evening as well as the daytime.

Easy to Love has 10-12 hour longevity and average sillage.

Easy To Love is a fantastic variation on a classic perfume trope. It lives up to its name. I have a set of three go-to summer errand perfumes. Easy To Love looks poised to join that group.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample I purchased.

Mark Behnke

New Perfume Review Hiram Green Lustre- Radiant-Cut Rose

I have always been fascinated with large gemstones. It is why even though I live in the Washington DC area my favorite museum is the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History just so I can walk through the gemstone room again. One of the things which becomes evident when you can compare so many side-by-side that it is the cut of the stone that adds to its brilliance. Over my many visits the cut I’ve come to enjoy most is a “radiant-cut”. It can take the light which surrounds the stone deep inside itself and then reflects itself back through the center providing a soft glowing pulse right at the heart of it all. This also has an added benefit of making the gemstone look bigger than it is. When it comes to perfume, I use jewelry analogies whenever I describe soliflores. I think of them as diamond solitaires given a setting where they can be as brilliant as they can be. Hiram Green Lustre is a radiant-cut rose soliflore.

Hiram Green

Hiram Green has been building one of the strongest portfolios in independent natural perfumery. Since the debut of Moon Bloom in 2013 each new release has shown continued expansion of what a natural perfume can be. That belief is becoming more wide spread as last year’s Hyde won the Art & Olfaction Award this year. It was why when I was chatting with people at Esxence this year I kept asking about Lustre which was premiered in Milan. I think because I was so annoying one of my friends sent me a sample from the booth. What I found was a rose soliflore as only Mr. Green could conceptualize.

The rose Mr. Green uses is a rich Bulgarian version knows as Rose Damascena. It is one of the most famous roses in the world. Mr. Green takes this gorgeous essential oil and treats it as a rough gem using four ingredients to add cuts until it achieves the desired radiance. The first cut comes via citrus. This is the light which surrounds things being pulled inward. It is like the sun reflected off dew drops on the rose petals. Orris comes next to more fully shape the rose with its rooty and powdery aspects. It accentuates those characteristics within the rose. Olibanum creates a resinous focal point to draw your attention to the softly glowing drop of honey underneath it all.

Lustre has 10-12 hour longevity and average sillage.

I repeatedly commend Mr. Green for finding an intensity from his natural palette that is uncommon in this kind of perfumery. Lustre is a long-lived jewel of a rose that draws you in to its radiant-cut depths.

Disclosure: This review is based on a sample from Hiram Green as relayed by a friend from Esxence.

Mark Behnke